Energy Generation



Extraction of coal-seam gas (CSG), also known as

coal-bed methane (CBM), or shale gas, for energy

production can generate significant volumes of

brine as part of production operations. This brine

waste is traditionally stored in purpose-built

evaporation ponds for reduction of volume and

subsequent crystallisation for eventual landfilling.

Along with high costs, this method of brine

management can result in substantial environmental

impacts such as noxious dust generation and damage to surrounding land and groundwater due to leaching. In some cases, these waste streams are enriched with valuable dissolved elements, however economic recovery is challenging as it is dependent upon availability of technology and a suitably sized waste resource for economies of scale.


Energy generation through waste-to-energy (WtE) processes also produce waste streams, namely bottom ash and fly ash. Management of fly ash is particularly problematic due to hazardous contaminants, requiring dedicated monofilling for safe disposal. However, most fly ash monofills currently in operation in Europe are known to release leachates, and this together with concern with GHG emissions from incineration processes, have led to the banning of fly ash land filling and classification of WtE as an unsustainable practice. Similar to CSG brine challenges, sustainable technologies are needed to address the saline waste from WtE processes operated in countries outside Europe, including Australia, particularly in view of adverse climate-related impacts of landfills.


Our Capabilities:

  • Techno-economic and life cycle assessments of VAPs

  • Advice on brine minimisation strategies to corporations facing brine-related challenges in both CSG and WtE operations

  • Strategies for the recovery of high-value mineral products from CSG brine as a source of VAPs and a means to reduce waste disposal requirements

  • Advice on technologies for the recovery of values from fly ash before disposal

  • Strategies for the minimisation of fly ash and flyash leachate through encapsulation processes

  • High-level evaluation of blue sky technologies with the objective of improving their efficiency and value adding options

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©2022 by Impactus VAP Pty Ltd